Statement to Parliament: PM Commons statement on Westminster attack: 23 March 2017

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Statement to Parliament: PM Commons statement on Westminster attack: 23 March 2017 // GOV.UK

Mr Speaker, yesterday an act of terrorism tried to silence our democracy.

But today we meet as normal – as generations have done before us, and as future generations will continue to do – to deliver a simple message: we are not afraid. And our resolve will never waiver in the face of terrorism.

And we meet here, in the oldest of all Parliaments, because we know that democracy, and the values it entails, will always prevail.

Those values – free speech, liberty, human rights and the rule of law – are embodied here in this place, but they are shared by free people around the world.

A terrorist came to the place where people of all nationalities and cultures gather to celebrate what it means to be free. And he took out his rage indiscriminately against innocent men, women and children.

Mr Speaker, this was an attack on free people everywhere – and on behalf of the British people, I would like to thank our friends and allies around the world who have made it clear that they stand with us at this time.

What happened on the streets of Westminster yesterday afternoon sickened us all.

While there is an ongoing police investigation, the House will understand that there are limits to what I can say.

But having been updated by police and security officials let me set out what at this stage I can tell the House.

At approximately 2:40pm yesterday, a single attacker drove his vehicle at speed into innocent pedestrians who were crossing Westminster Bridge, killing 2 people and injuring around 40 more.

In addition to 12 Britons admitted to hospital, we know that the victims include 3 French children, 2 Romanians, 4 South Koreans, 1 German, 1 Pole, 1 Irish, 1 Chinese, 1 Italian, 1 American and 2 Greeks.

And we are in close contact with the governments of the countries of all those affected.

The injured also included 3 police officers who were returning from an event to recognise their bravery. Two of those 3 remain in a serious condition.

Mr Speaker, the attacker then left the vehicle and approached a police officer at Carriage Gates, attacking that officer with a large knife, before he was shot dead by an armed police officer.

Tragically, as the House will know, 48-year-old PC Keith Palmer, was killed.

PC Palmer had devoted his life to the service of his country. He had been a member of the Parliamentary and Diplomatic Protection Command for 15 years, and a soldier in the Royal Artillery before that.

He was a husband and a father, killed doing a job he loved.

He was every inch a hero. And his actions will never be forgotten.

I know the whole House will join me in sending our deepest condolences to his family – and to the families and friends of all those who have been killed or injured in yesterday’s awful attacks.

I know also that the House will wish to thank all those who acted with such speed and professionalism yesterday to secure this place and ensure we are able to meet as we are doing today.

Mr Speaker, at 7:30 last night, I chaired a meeting of the government’s emergency committee COBR and will have further briefings and meetings with security officials today.

The threat level to the UK has been set at ‘severe’ – meaning an attack is highly likely – for some time.

This is the second highest threat level. The highest level ‘critical’ means there is specific intelligence that an attack is imminent.

As there is no such intelligence, the independent Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre has decided that the threat level will not change in the light of yesterday’s attack.

Mr Speaker, the whole country will want to know who was responsible for this atrocity and the measures that we are taking to strengthen our security, including here in Westminster.

A full counter-terrorism investigation is already underway.

Hundreds of our police and security officers have been working through the night to establish everything possible about this attack – including its preparation, motivation and whether there were any associates involved in its planning.

And while there remain limits on what I can say at this stage, I can confirm that overnight the police have searched 6 addresses and made 8 arrests in Birmingham and London.

Mr Speaker, it is still believed that this attacker acted alone, and the police have no reason to believe there are imminent further attacks on the public.

His identity is known to the police and MI5, and when operational considerations allow, he will be publicly identified.

What I can confirm is that the man was British born and that some years ago, he was once investigated in relation to concerns about violent extremism. He was a peripheral figure.

The case is historic – he was not part of the current intelligence picture.

There was no prior intelligence of his intent – or of the plot. Intensive investigations continue.

And as Acting Deputy Commissioner Rowley confirmed last night, our working assumption is that the attacker was inspired by Islamist ideology.

Mr Speaker, we know the threat from Islamist terrorism is very real. But while the public should remain utterly vigilant they should not – and will not – be cowed by this threat.

As Acting Deputy Commissioner Rowley has made clear, we are stepping up policing to protect communities across the country and to reassure the public.

And as a precautionary measure, this will mean increasing the number of patrols in cities across the country with more police and more armed police on the streets.

Since June 2013 our police, security and intelligence agencies have successfully disrupted 13 separate terrorist plots in Britain.

Following the 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review, we protected the police budgets for counter-terrorism and committed to increase cross-government spending on counter-terrorism by 30% in real terms over the course of this Parliament.

And over the next 5 years we will invest an extra £2.5 billion in building our global security and intelligence network, employing over 1,900 additional staff at MI5, MI6 and GCHQ and more than doubling our global network of counter-terrorism experts working with priority countries across Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia.

Mr Speaker, in terms of security here in Westminster, we should be clear first of all that an attacker attempted to break into Parliament and was shot dead within 20 yards of the gates.

If his intention was to gain access to this building, we should be clear that he did not succeed.

The police heroically did their job.

But as is routine, the police together with the House authorities are reviewing the security of the Parliamentary estate, co-ordinated with the Cabinet Office, who have responsibility for the security measures in place around the government secure zone.

All of us in this House have a responsibility for the security and safety of our staff and advice is available for Members who need it.

Mr Speaker, yesterday we saw the worst of humanity, but we will remember the best.

We will remember the extraordinary efforts to save the life of PC Keith Palmer, including those by my Rt Hon Friend the Member for Bournemouth East.

And we will remember the exceptional bravery of our police, security and emergency services who once again ran towards the danger even as they encouraged others to move the other way.

On behalf of the whole country I want to pay tribute to them for the work they have been doing to reassure the public, treat the injured and bring security back to the streets of our capital city.

That they have lost one of their own in yesterday’s attack only makes their calmness and professionalism all the more remarkable.

Mr Speaker, a lot has been said since terror struck London yesterday. Much more will be said in the coming days.

But the greatest response lies not in the words of politicians, but in the everyday actions of ordinary people.

For beyond these walls today – in scenes repeated in towns and cities across the country – millions of people are going about their days and getting on with their lives.

The streets are as busy as ever.

The offices full. The coffee shops and cafes bustling.

As I speak millions will be boarding trains and aeroplanes to travel to London, and to see for themselves the greatest city on Earth.

It is in these actions – millions of acts of normality – that we find the best response to terrorism.

A response that denies our enemies their victory. That refuses to let them win. That shows we will never give in.

A response driven by that same spirit that drove a husband and father to put himself between us and our attacker, and to pay the ultimate price.

A response that says to the men and women who propagate this hate and evil: you will not defeat us.

Mr Speaker, let this be the message from this House and this nation today: our values will prevail.

And I commend this statement to the House….

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Press Release: Today 7th March 2017 – Vault 7 is Released

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Today, Tuesday 7 March 2017, WikiLeaks begins its new series of leaks on the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Code-named “Vault 7” by WikiLeaks, it is the largest ever publication of confidential documents on the agency.

The first full part of the series, “Year Zero”, comprises 8,761 documents and files from an isolated, high-security network situated inside the CIA’s Center for Cyber Intelligence in Langley, Virgina. It follows an introductory disclosure last month of CIA targeting French political parties and candidates in the lead up to the 2012 presidential election.

Recently, the CIA lost control of the majority of its hacking arsenal including malware, viruses, trojans, weaponized “zero day” exploits, malware remote control systems and associated documentation. This extraordinary collection, which amounts to more than several hundred million lines of code, gives its possessor the entire hacking capacity of the CIA. The archive appears to have been circulated among former U.S. government hackers and contractors in an unauthorized manner, one of whom has provided WikiLeaks with portions of the archive.

“Year Zero” introduces the scope and direction of the CIA’s global covert hacking program, its malware arsenal and dozens of “zero day” weaponized exploits against a wide range of U.S. and European company products, include Apple’s iPhone, Google’s Android and Microsoft’s Windows and even Samsung TVs, which are turned into covert microphones.

Since 2001 the CIA has gained political and budgetary preeminence over the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). The CIA found itself building not just its now infamous drone fleet, but a very different type of covert, globe-spanning force — its own substantial fleet of hackers. The agency’s hacking division freed it from having to disclose its often controversial operations to the NSA (its primary bureaucratic rival) in order to draw on the NSA’s hacking capacities.

By the end of 2016, the CIA’s hacking division, which formally falls under the agency’s Center for Cyber Intelligence (CCI), had over 5000 registered users and had produced more than a thousand hacking systems, trojans, viruses, and other “weaponized” malware. Such is the scale of the CIA’s undertaking that by 2016, its hackers had utilized more code than that used to run Facebook. The CIA had created, in effect, its “own NSA” with even less accountability and without publicly answering the question as to whether such a massive budgetary spend on duplicating the capacities of a rival agency could be justified.

In a statement to WikiLeaks the source details policy questions that they say urgently need to be debated in public, including whether the CIA’s hacking capabilities exceed its mandated powers and the problem of public oversight of the agency. The source wishes to initiate a public debate about the security, creation, use, proliferation and democratic control of cyberweapons.

Once a single cyber ‘weapon’ is ‘loose’ it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by rival states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.

Julian Assange, WikiLeaks editor stated that “There is an extreme proliferation risk in the development of cyber ‘weapons’. Comparisons can be drawn between the uncontrolled proliferation of such ‘weapons’, which results from the inability to contain them combined with their high market value, and the global arms trade. But the significance of “Year Zero” goes well beyond the choice between cyberwar and cyberpeace. The disclosure is also exceptional from a political, legal and forensic perspective.”

Wikileaks has carefully reviewed the “Year Zero” disclosure and published substantive CIA documentation while avoiding the distribution of ‘armed’ cyberweapons until a consensus emerges on the technical and political nature of the CIA’s program and how such ‘weapons’ should analyzed, disarmed and published.

Wikileaks has also decided to redact and anonymise some identifying information in “Year Zero” for in depth analysis. These redactions include ten of thousands of CIA targets and attack machines throughout Latin America, Europe and the United States. While we are aware of the imperfect results of any approach chosen, we remain committed to our publishing model and note that the quantity of published pages in “Vault 7” part one (“Year Zero”) already eclipses the total number of pages published over the first three years of the Edward Snowden NSA leaks.


CIA malware targets iPhone, Android, smart TVs

CIA malware and hacking tools are built by EDG (Engineering Development Group), a software development group within CCI (Center for Cyber Intelligence), a department belonging to the CIA’s DDI (Directorate for Digital Innovation). The DDI is one of the five major directorates of the CIA (see this organizational chart of the CIA for more details).

The EDG is responsible for the development, testing and operational support of all backdoors, exploits, malicious payloads, trojans, viruses and any other kind of malware used by the CIA in its covert operations world-wide.

The increasing sophistication of surveillance techniques has drawn comparisons with George Orwell’s 1984, but “Weeping Angel”, developed by the CIA’s Embedded Devices Branch (EDB), which infests smart TVs, transforming them into covert microphones, is surely its most emblematic realization.

The attack against Samsung smart TVs was developed in cooperation with the United Kingdom’s MI5/BTSS. After infestation, Weeping Angel places the target TV in a ‘Fake-Off’ mode, so that the owner falsely believes the TV is off when it is on. In ‘Fake-Off’ mode the TV operates as a bug, recording conversations in the room and sending them over the Internet to a covert CIA server.

As of October 2014 the CIA was also looking at infecting the vehicle control systems used by modern cars and trucks. The purpose of such control is not specified, but it would permit the CIA to engage in nearly undetectable assassinations.

The CIA’s Mobile Devices Branch (MDB) developed numerous attacks to remotely hack and control popular smart phones. Infected phones can be instructed to send the CIA the user’s geolocation, audio and text communications as well as covertly activate the phone’s camera and microphone.

Despite iPhone’s minority share (14.5%) of the global smart phone market in 2016, a specialized unit in the CIA’s Mobile Development Branch produces malware to infest, control and exfiltrate data from iPhones and other Apple products running iOS, such as iPads. CIA’s arsenal includes numerous local and remote “zero days” developed by CIA or obtained from GCHQ, NSA, FBI or purchased from cyber arms contractors such as Baitshop. The disproportionate focus on iOS may be explained by the popularity of the iPhone among social, political, diplomatic and business elites.

A similar unit targets Google’s Android which is used to run the majority of the world’s smart phones (~85%) including Samsung, HTC and Sony. 1.15 billion Android powered phones were sold last year. “Year Zero” shows that as of 2016 the CIA had 24 “weaponized” Android “zero days” which it has developed itself and obtained from GCHQ, NSA and cyber arms contractors.

These techniques permit the CIA to bypass the encryption of WhatsApp, Signal, Telegram, Wiebo, Confide and Cloackman by hacking the “smart” phones that they run on and collecting audio and message traffic before encryption is applied.

CIA malware targets Windows, OSx, Linux, routers

The CIA also runs a very substantial effort to infect and control Microsoft Windows users with its malware. This includes multiple local and remote weaponized “zero days”, air gap jumping viruses such as “Hammer Drill”which infects software distributed on CD/DVDs, infectors for removable media such as USBs, systems to hide data in images or in covert disk areas (“Brutal Kangaroo”) and to keep its malware infestations going.

Many of these infection efforts are pulled together by the CIA’s Automated Implant Branch (AIB), which has developed several attack systems for automated infestation and control of CIA malware, such as “Assassin” and “Medusa”.

Attacks against Internet infrastructure and webservers are developed by the CIA’s Network Devices Branch (NDB).

The CIA has developed automated multi-platform malware attack and control systems covering Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, Linux and more, such as EDB’s “HIVE” and the related “Cutthroat” and “Swindle” tools, which aredescribed in the examples section below.

CIA ‘hoarded’ vulnerabilities (“zero days”)

In the wake of Edward Snowden’s leaks about the NSA, the U.S. technology industry secured a commitment from the Obama administration that the executive would disclose on an ongoing basis — rather than hoard — serious vulnerabilities, exploits, bugs or “zero days” to Apple, Google, Microsoft, and other US-based manufacturers.

Serious vulnerabilities not disclosed to the manufacturers places huge swathes of the population and critical infrastructure at risk to foreign intelligence or cyber criminals who independently discover or hear rumors of the vulnerability. If the CIA can discover such vulnerabilities so can others.

The U.S. government’s commitment to the Vulnerabilities Equities Processcame after significant lobbying by US technology companies, who risk losing their share of the global market over real and perceived hidden vulnerabilities. The government stated that it would disclose all pervasive vulnerabilities discovered after 2010 on an ongoing basis.

“Year Zero” documents show that the CIA breached the Obama administration’s commitments. Many of the vulnerabilities used in the CIA’s cyber arsenal are pervasive and some may already have been found by rival intelligence agencies or cyber criminals.

As an example, specific CIA malware revealed in “Year Zero” is able to penetrate, infest and control both the Android phone and iPhone software that runs or has run presidential Twitter accounts. The CIA attacks this software by using undisclosed security vulnerabilities (“zero days”) possessed by the CIA but if the CIA can hack these phones then so can everyone else who has obtained or discovered the vulnerability. As long as the CIA keeps these vulnerabilities concealed from Apple and Google (who make the phones) they will not be fixed, and the phones will remain hackable.

The same vulnerabilities exist for the population at large, including the U.S. Cabinet, Congress, top CEOs, system administrators, security officers and engineers. By hiding these security flaws from manufacturers like Apple and Google the CIA ensures that it can hack everyone &mdsh; at the expense of leaving everyone hackable.

‘Cyberwar’ programs are a serious proliferation risk

Cyber ‘weapons’ are not possible to keep under effective control.

While nuclear proliferation has been restrained by the enormous costs and visible infrastructure involved in assembling enough fissile material to produce a critical nuclear mass, cyber ‘weapons’, once developed, are very hard to retain.

Cyber ‘weapons’ are in fact just computer programs which can be pirated like any other. Since they are entirely comprised of information they can be copied quickly with no marginal cost.

Securing such ‘weapons’ is particularly difficult since the same people who develop and use them have the skills to exfiltrate copies without leaving traces — sometimes by using the very same ‘weapons’ against the organizations that contain them. There are substantial price incentives for government hackers and consultants to obtain copies since there is a global “vulnerability market” that will pay hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars for copies of such ‘weapons’. Similarly, contractors and companies who obtain such ‘weapons’ sometimes use them for their own purposes, obtaining advantage over their competitors in selling ‘hacking’ services.

Over the last three years the United States intelligence sector, which consists of government agencies such as the CIA and NSA and their contractors, such as Booze Allan Hamilton, has been subject to unprecedented series of data exfiltrations by its own workers.

A number of intelligence community members not yet publicly named have been arrested or subject to federal criminal investigations in separate incidents.

Most visibly, on February 8, 2017 a U.S. federal grand jury indicted Harold T. Martin III with 20 counts of mishandling classified information. The Department of Justice alleged that it seized some 50,000 gigabytes of information from Harold T. Martin III that he had obtained from classified programs at NSA and CIA, including the source code for numerous hacking tools.

Once a single cyber ‘weapon’ is ‘loose’ it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by peer states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.

U.S. Consulate in Frankfurt is a covert CIA hacker base

In addition to its operations in Langley, Virginia the CIA also uses the U.S. consulate in Frankfurt as a covert base for its hackers covering Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

CIA hackers operating out of the Frankfurt consulate ( “Center for Cyber Intelligence Europe” or CCIE) are given diplomatic (“black”) passports and State Department cover. The instructions for incoming CIA hackers make Germany’s counter-intelligence efforts appear inconsequential: “Breeze through German Customs because you have your cover-for-action story down pat, and all they did was stamp your passport”

Your Cover Story (for this trip)
Q: Why are you here?
A: Supporting technical consultations at the Consulate.

Two earlier WikiLeaks publications give further detail on CIA approaches tocustoms and secondary screening procedures.

Once in Frankfurt CIA hackers can travel without further border checks to the 25 European countries that are part of the Shengen open border area — including France, Italy and Switzerland.

A number of the CIA’s electronic attack methods are designed for physical proximity. These attack methods are able to penetrate high security networks that are disconnected from the internet, such as police record database. In these cases, a CIA officer, agent or allied intelligence officer acting under instructions, physically infiltrates the targeted workplace. The attacker is provided with a USB containing malware developed for the CIA for this purpose, which is inserted into the targeted computer. The attacker then infects and exfiltrates data to removable media. For example, the CIA attack system Fine Dining, provides 24 decoy applications for CIA spies to use. To witnesses, the spy appears to be running a program showing videos (e.g VLC), presenting slides (Prezi), playing a computer game (Breakout2, 2048) or even running a fake virus scanner (Kaspersky, McAfee, Sophos). But while the decoy application is on the screen, the underlaying system is automatically infected and ransacked.

How the CIA dramatically increased proliferation risks

In what is surely one of the most astounding intelligence own goals in living memory, the CIA structured its classification regime such that for the most market valuable part of “Vault 7” — the CIA’s weaponized malware (implants + zero days), Listening Posts (LP), and Command and Control (C2) systems — the agency has little legal recourse.

The CIA made these systems unclassified.

Why the CIA chose to make its cyberarsenal unclassified reveals how concepts developed for military use do not easily crossover to the ‘battlefield’ of cyber ‘war’.

To attack its targets, the CIA usually requires that its implants communicate with their control programs over the internet. If CIA implants, Command & Control and Listening Post software were classified, then CIA officers could be prosecuted or dismissed for violating rules that prohibit placing classified information onto the Internet. Consequently the CIA has secretly made most of its cyber spying/war code unclassified. The U.S. government is not able to assert copyright either, due to restrictions in the U.S. Constitution. This means that cyber ‘arms’ manufactures and computer hackers can freely “pirate” these ‘weapons’ if they are obtained. The CIA has primarily had to rely on obfuscation to protect its malware secrets.

Conventional weapons such as missiles may be fired at the enemy (i.e into an unsecured area). Proximity to or impact with the target detonates the ordnance including its classified parts. Hence military personnel do not violate classification rules by firing ordnance with classified parts. Ordnance will likely explode. If it does not, that is not the operator’s intent.

Over the last decade U.S. hacking operations have been increasingly dressed up in military jargon to tap into Department of Defense funding streams. For instance, attempted “malware injections” (commercial jargon) or “implant drops” (NSA jargon) are being called “fires” as if a weapon was being fired. However the analogy is questionable.

Unlike bullets, bombs or missiles, most CIA malware is designed to live for days or even years after it has reached its ‘target’. CIA malware does not “explode on impact” but rather permanently infests its target. In order to infect target’s device, copies of the malware must be placed on the target’s devices, giving physical possession of the malware to the target. To exfiltrate data back to the CIA or to await further instructions the malware must communicate with CIA Command & Control (C2) systems placed on internet connected servers. But such servers are typically not approved to hold classified information, so CIA command and control systems are also made unclassified.

A successful ‘attack’ on a target’s computer system is more like a series of complex stock maneuvers in a hostile take-over bid or the careful planting of rumors in order to gain control over an organization’s leadership rather than the firing of a weapons system. If there is a military analogy to be made, the infestation of a target is perhaps akin to the execution of a whole series of military maneuvers against the target’s territory including observation, infiltration, occupation and exploitation.

Evading forensics and anti-virus

A series of standards lay out CIA malware infestation patterns which are likely to assist forensic crime scene investigators as well as Apple, Microsoft, Google, Samsung, Nokia, Blackberry, Siemens and anti-virus companies attribute and defend against attacks.

“Tradecraft DO’s and DON’Ts” contains CIA rules on how its malware should be written to avoid fingerprints implicating the “CIA, US government, or its witting partner companies” in “forensic review”. Similar secret standards cover the use of encryption to hide CIA hacker and malware communication(pdf), describing targets & exfiltrated data (pdf) as well as executing payloads(pdf) and persisting (pdf) in the target’s machines over time.

CIA hackers developed successful attacks against most well known anti-virus programs. These are documented in AV defeats, Personal Security Products, Detecting and defeating PSPs and PSP/Debugger/RE Avoidance. For example, Comodo was defeated by CIA malware placing itself in the Window’s “Recycle Bin”. While Comodo 6.x has a “Gaping Hole of DOOM”.

CIA hackers discussed what the NSA’s “Equation Group” hackers did wrong and how the CIA’s malware makers could avoid similar exposure.


The CIA’s Engineering Development Group (EDG) management system contains around 500 different projects (only some of which are documented by “Year Zero”) each with their own sub-projects, malware and hacker tools.

The majority of these projects relate to tools that are used for penetration, infestation (“implanting”), control, and exfiltration.

Another branch of development focuses on the development and operation of Listening Posts (LP) and Command and Control (C2) systems used to communicate with and control CIA implants; special projects are used to target specific hardware from routers to smart TVs.

Some example projects are described below, but see the table of contentsfor the full list of projects described by WikiLeaks’ “Year Zero”.


The CIA’s hand crafted hacking techniques pose a problem for the agency. Each technique it has created forms a “fingerprint” that can be used by forensic investigators to attribute multiple different attacks to the same entity.

This is analogous to finding the same distinctive knife wound on multiple separate murder victims. The unique wounding style creates suspicion that a single murderer is responsible. As soon one murder in the set is solved then the other murders also find likely attribution.

The CIA’s Remote Devices Branch‘s UMBRAGE group collects and maintains a substantial library of attack techniques ‘stolen’ from malware produced in other states including the Russian Federation.

With UMBRAGE and related projects the CIA cannot only increase its total number of attack types but also misdirect attribution by leaving behind the “fingerprints” of the groups that the attack techniques were stolen from.

UMBRAGE components cover keyloggers, password collection, webcam capture, data destruction, persistence, privilege escalation, stealth, anti-virus (PSP) avoidance and survey techniques.

Fine Dining

Fine Dining comes with a standardized questionnaire i.e menu that CIA case officers fill out. The questionnaire is used by the agency’s OSB (Operational Support Branch) to transform the requests of case officers into technical requirements for hacking attacks (typically “exfiltrating” information from computer systems) for specific operations. The questionnaire allows the OSB to identify how to adapt existing tools for the operation, and communicate this to CIA malware configuration staff. The OSB functions as the interface between CIA operational staff and the relevant technical support staff.

Among the list of possible targets of the collection are ‘Asset’, ‘Liason Asset’, ‘System Administrator’, ‘Foreign Information Operations’, ‘Foreign Intelligence Agencies’ and ‘Foreign Government Entities’. Notably absent is any reference to extremists or transnational criminals. The ‘Case Officer’ is also asked to specify the environment of the target like the type of computer, operating system used, Internet connectivity and installed anti-virus utilities (PSPs) as well as a list of file types to be exfiltrated like Office documents, audio, video, images or custom file types. The ‘menu’ also asks for information if recurring access to the target is possible and how long unobserved access to the computer can be maintained. This information is used by the CIA’s ‘JQJIMPROVISE’ software (see below) to configure a set of CIA malware suited to the specific needs of an operation.


‘Improvise’ is a toolset for configuration, post-processing, payload setup and execution vector selection for survey/exfiltration tools supporting all major operating systems like Windows (Bartender), MacOS (JukeBox) and Linux (DanceFloor). Its configuration utilities like Margarita allows the NOC (Network Operation Center) to customize tools based on requirements from ‘Fine Dining’ questionairies.


HIVE is a multi-platform CIA malware suite and its associated control software. The project provides customizable implants for Windows, Solaris, MikroTik (used in internet routers) and Linux platforms and a Listening Post (LP)/Command and Control (C2) infrastructure to communicate with these implants.

The implants are configured to communicate via HTTPS with the webserver of a cover domain; each operation utilizing these implants has a separate cover domain and the infrastructure can handle any number of cover domains.

Each cover domain resolves to an IP address that is located at a commercial VPS (Virtual Private Server) provider. The public-facing server forwards all incoming traffic via a VPN to a ‘Blot’ server that handles actual connection requests from clients. It is setup for optional SSL client authentication: if a client sends a valid client certificate (only implants can do that), the connection is forwarded to the ‘Honeycomb’ toolserver that communicates with the implant; if a valid certificate is missing (which is the case if someone tries to open the cover domain website by accident), the traffic is forwarded to a cover server that delivers an unsuspicious looking website.

The Honeycomb toolserver receives exfiltrated information from the implant; an operator can also task the implant to execute jobs on the target computer, so the toolserver acts as a C2 (command and control) server for the implant.

Similar functionality (though limited to Windows) is provided by the RickBobby project.

See the classified user and developer guides for HIVE.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why now?

WikiLeaks published as soon as its verification and analysis were ready.

In Febuary the Trump administration has issued an Executive Order calling for a “Cyberwar” review to be prepared within 30 days.

While the review increases the timeliness and relevance of the publication it did not play a role in setting the publication date.


Names, email addresses and external IP addresses have been redacted in the released pages (70,875 redactions in total) until further analysis is complete.

  1. Over-redaction: Some items may have been redacted that are not employees, contractors, targets or otherwise related to the agency, but are, for example, authors of documentation for otherwise public projects that are used by the agency.
  2. Identity vs. person: the redacted names are replaced by user IDs (numbers) to allow readers to assign multiple pages to a single author. Given the redaction process used a single person may be represented by more than one assigned identifier but no identifier refers to more than one real person.
  3. Archive attachments (zip, tar.gz, …) are replaced with a PDF listing all the file names in the archive. As the archive content is assessed it may be made available; until then the archive is redacted.
  4. Attachments with other binary content are replaced by a hex dump of the content to prevent accidental invocation of binaries that may have been infected with weaponized CIA malware. As the content is assessed it may be made available; until then the content is redacted.
  5. The tens of thousands of routable IP addresses references(including more than 22 thousand within the United States) that correspond to possible targets, CIA covert listening post servers, intermediary and test systems, are redacted for further exclusive investigation.
  6. Binary files of non-public origin are only available as dumps to prevent accidental invocation of CIA malware infected binaries.

Organizational Chart

The organizational chart corresponds to the material published by WikiLeaks so far.

Since the organizational structure of the CIA below the level of Directorates is not public, the placement of the EDG and its branches within the org chart of the agency is reconstructed from information contained in the documents released so far. It is intended to be used as a rough outline of the internal organization; please be aware that the reconstructed org chart is incomplete and that internal reorganizations occur frequently.

Wiki pages

“Year Zero” contains 7818 web pages with 943 attachments from the internal development groupware. The software used for this purpose is called Confluence, a proprietary software from Atlassian. Webpages in this system (like in Wikipedia) have a version history that can provide interesting insights on how a document evolved over time; the 7818 documents include these page histories for 1136 latest versions.

The order of named pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first). Page content is not present if it was originally dynamically created by the Confluence software (as indicated on the re-constructed page).

What time period is covered?

The years 2013 to 2016. The sort order of the pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first).

WikiLeaks has obtained the CIA’s creation/last modification date for each page but these do not yet appear for technical reasons. Usually the date can be discerned or approximated from the content and the page order. If it is critical to know the exact time/date contact WikiLeaks.

What is “Vault 7”

“Vault 7” is a substantial collection of material about CIA activities obtained by WikiLeaks.

When was each part of “Vault 7” obtained?

Part one was obtained recently and covers through 2016. Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.

Is each part of “Vault 7” from a different source?

Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.

What is the total size of “Vault 7”?

The series is the largest intelligence publication in history.

How did WikiLeaks obtain each part of “Vault 7”?

Sources trust WikiLeaks to not reveal information that might help identify them.

Isn’t WikiLeaks worried that the CIA will act against its staff to stop the series?

No. That would be certainly counter-productive.

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NEW LONDON, Conn. **UPDATE MEDIA ADVISORY** Coast Guard Academy to hold Class of 2017 Billet Night at 19:00:GMT: on Thurs.02:2017: Leamy Auditorium – #AceEventsNews

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#AceEventsNews – Feb.27: The Coast Guard Academy is scheduled to hold the Class of 2017 Billet Night at 7 p.m., Thursday, Mar. 2, 2017 in Leamy Auditorium.

united states coast guard

NEW LONDON, Conn. -- Members of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy Class of 2016 receive their first assignments during billet night March 3, 2016.

During the event, media is invited to attend and to capture imagery of Coast Guard cadets as they prepare for the next step in the career.

WHAT: Coast Guard Academy Class of 2017 Billet Night

WHERE: Leamy Hall at Coast Guard Academy

WHEN: 7-8:30 p.m.

For more information, please contact the Coast Guard Academy Public Affairs office at (860) 444-8270.

Sterling Publishing & Media News

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BBC’s TV licence bullies are exposed … Daily Mail Online ..

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Boss Ian Doyle on secret camera
Boss Ian Doyle on secret camera

Ruthless and underhand tactics used by BBC licence fee agents can be exposed today.

Under an aggressive incentive scheme, hundreds of enforcement officers have orders to each catch 28 evaders a week.

Bosses promise bonuses of up to £15,000 a year, saying staff must gather evidence to take as many people to court as possible.

Homeowners who fail to pay can be fined and given criminal records.

Among the vulnerable targeted in the past seven days are a war veteran with dementia and a desperate young mother in a women’s refuge.

The revelations come from an investigation by a Daily Mail undercover reporter interviewed for an enforcement job by Capita.

The outsourcing firm is paid £58million a year to collect licence fees for the BBC, bringing in £3.74billion a year.

The reporter was told by bosses: ‘We will drive you as hard as we can to get as much as we can out of you because we’re greedy.’ He was encouraged to spy on homes and take money on the doorstep.

‘Cash, debit, credit card, we’ll take anything,’ one TV Licensing manager said. ‘I tell people I’ll take shirt buttons.’

Last night, the BBC ordered an urgent investigation into the Mail’s findings, insisting there would be ‘swift and appropriate action’.

The reporter was told by bosses: ‘We will drive you as hard as we can to get as much as we can out of you because we’re greedy'
The reporter was told by bosses: ‘We will drive you as hard as we can to get as much as we can out of you because we’re greedy’

Culture Secretary Karen Bradley will question the BBC’s director general Tony Hall about the Mail’s findings in the coming days. Capita’s bosses also face being hauled before MPs.

The Government is now under renewed pressure to decriminalise the so-called ‘TV tax’ and crack down on the aggressive way in which payments are pursued.

The Mail’s undercover investigation found that:

  • Officials are encouraged to snoop on neighbourhoods to try to work out when residents are in;
  • They gather evidence by informal chats, followed by an official caution;
  • If allowed inside they check TVs to gather evidence;
  • Residents who agree to pay up can still be prosecuted.

Households must have a licence to watch or record live TV programmes on any channel and when using BBC iPlayer. The rules apply to any device from a TV set to a games console.

Failure to pay can result in a criminal conviction and a £1,000 penalty. Thirty-eight people – mostly women – were jailed last year for not paying the fine.

Capita bosses told our reporter of the aggressive incentive system they have devised to bring in as much licence fee cash as possible from home vists. Agents arrange card payments, direct debits and weekly payment plans and take cash.

The firm’s 330 field officers are told they must hit a target – the ‘magic 28’ – the number of evaders an officer must catch a week, signing them up to pay.

Capita officers can be paid £20-£25 for each person they snare over 28.

Damian Collins, the Tory chairman of the Commons culture committee, described the Mail’s evidence as ‘damning’. He said he would demand answers from BBC chief Lord Hall.

‘It’s very concerning. This is being done in the BBC’s name,’ he added. ‘The BBC needs to make sure changes are made to the way this contract is being run or that it’s taken away from Capita and given to someone else.’

Labour MP Chris Matheson, who also sits on the committee, called for Capita bosses to be summoned to Parliament.

TV licence boss tells recruit: ‘We’ll drive you hard, we’re greedy’

In the back room of a Holiday Inn Express, Ian Doyle was filmed briefing his latest recruit
In the back room of a Holiday Inn Express, Ian Doyle was filmed briefing his latest recruit

He added: ‘If there are people who deliberately avoid paying the licence fee they should face consequences.

‘But going after soft easy vulnerable targets to boost Capita’s profits undermines the BBC and TV Licensing.’

A spokesman for the Department for Culture Media and Sport said: ‘These reports are obviously concerning. The licence fee needs to be collected in a fair and reasonable manner.

‘The BBC has, quite rightly, ordered an urgent investigation and ministers will be raising this issue with them directly.’

Capita officials visited three million homes last year – with 298,000 resulting in an evader being caught.

About 180,000 people each year are charged with not paying their licence fee. The subsequent prosecutions account for around one in ten of all criminal cases in England and Wales.

Capita said its incentive scheme applies to sales of licence fees only and not to the number of people officers interview so they can be taken to court. The firm said it only prosecuted as a last resort.

It said comments made by the Capita bosses to the undercover reporter ‘do not reflect the high standards we expect’.

A spokesman added: ‘Capita is required by the BBC to ensure households are not breaking the law. Officers are expected to act in a professional manner.

‘We strongly refute any allegation that officers are instructed to act outside of these requirements. Where we find employees have not acted as they should we act appropriately.’

The BBC said there had been a 50 per cent reduction in complaints made to TV Licensing since 2010.

A spokesman added: ‘We are very disappointed by the conduct of Capita’s interviewing managers in this particular case which is not in line with the high standards we expect. We have asked Capita to investigate urgently.’

  • Have you been hounded by licence fee bullies? Contact our Investigations Unit via tvlicence


Capita’s chief executive Andy Parker, 47, earned £2.68million in 2015Capita’s chief executive Andy Parker, 47, earned £2.68million in 2015
The firm that collects licence fees for the BBC is run by a fat cat executive on a pay package of £51,000 a week.

Capita’s chief executive Andy Parker, 47, earned £2.68million in 2015.

The outsourcing giant nicknamed ‘Crapita’ by the magazine Private Eye, runs more than 100 businesses and brings in revenue of £4.6billion a year.

Some £2billion of this is from public sector contracts such as assessing benefits claimants and collecting taxes. Capita owns ParkingEye – the private parking company that has been accused of aggressively chasing payments from NHS patients.

Mr Parker was promoted from deputy chief executive of Capita in March 2014, four months after it bought ParkingEye for £23.9million.

Last year, the Daily Mail revealed how ParkingEye has had more than 60,000 county court judgments taken out against drivers in the past three years. These leave people with a damaging black mark on their credit files.

Capita last year faced paying up to £25million over delays in upgrading London’s congestion charging system.

The firm was meant to complete an IT overhaul of the system by August but it went live at the end of September.

Shares fell to a three-year low after the delay was announced as part of a wider trading update from Capita, wiping £1.7billion off the firm’s value.

Mr Parker, who lives in a £2million home in Warwickshire with his wife and two sons, said at the time: ‘Our delivery wasn’t up to the standard expected.’

A Capita spokesman said: ‘Andy Parker’s salary remains one of the lowest among CEOs of similar sized FTSE companies.’

We’ll drive you hard – we’re greedy: TV licensing boss boasts of high-pressure techniques and doorstep trickery he orders his staff to use when hounding people on their doorstep

In the back room of a Holiday Inn Express, Ian Doyle is briefing his latest recruit.

The silver-haired former casino boss – wearing a pin stripe shirt and a thick red tie – is sitting behind a large meeting room table strewn with papers.

A large silver watch jangles on his left wrist as he waves his arm in the air.

‘We will drive you as hard as we can to get as much as we can out of you because we’re greedy,’ he declares. ‘Everybody’s target driven. You’ve got your target, I’ll have a target, my boss has a target and so it goes on up the chain of command.’

In the back room of a Holiday Inn Express, Ian Doyle is briefing his latest recruit

TV licence boss reveals ‘tips’ to catch evaders

He hits the table firmly with his hand, saying: ‘So we need good clean work. And you need to be able to focus.’

Who is Mr Doyle? And what is this high-pressured job, which requires such ruthless pursuit of cash?

Despite his tough words, Mr Doyle is not a Wall Street financier, or even an ambitious car salesman. He is an area manager for Capita – the outsourcing giant that earns more than £2billion a year from public sector contracts.

Capita collects taxes and assesses benefit claimants for the Government. It is also entrusted by the BBC – and paid £59million a year – to collect the £145.50 licence fee.

On a rainy Tuesday morning in January, Mr Doyle is at the Holiday Inn in Chingford, East London. He and his colleague, Lanre Coker-Ojo, are interviewing candidates hoping to be a BBC licence fee enforcement officer.

These are the officials who visit homes where there is no registered licence and sell TV licences. They question residents and make sure they sign up if they watch TV or BBC iPlayer. Last year alone, they turned up at three million properties – and caught 298,000 evaders.

Using handheld machines, they can register homeowners for direct debits on their doorsteps.

They even take cash from those who can only spare a few coins.

‘We’re looking to get 28 licence sales per week from each officer,’ Mr Doyle tells our undercover reporter. ‘As soon as you hit that magic 28, there’s a bonus – a commission scheme.’

Who is Mr Doyle? And what is this high-pressured job, which requires such ruthless pursuit of cash?
Who is Mr Doyle? And what is this high-pressured job, which requires such ruthless pursuit of cash?

The salary is £20,000 a year, but, as Mr Doyle explains, ‘You can earn another thousand, fifteen hundred pounds a month.

‘If you spend 15 minutes going from door to door and they are only about two minutes apart then you’re not going to see enough customers,’ says Mr Doyle.

‘Not seeing enough customers, you’re not going to be generating enough return to the company and the company will be kicking my backside to say what’s going on.

‘Cash, debit, credit card, we’ll take anything. I tell people I’ll take shirt buttons. I’ve not had to take any yet. It’s just an ice breaker.’ Mr Doyle explains that for each sale on a doorstep, TV Licensing officers are required to complete a ‘conviction statement’.

Conviction statements are the forms Capita officers fill in during home visits. They record whether they have noticed a TV through a front window, or heard a programme playing.

They take notes of everything that is said in conversation with a customer – including their name and whether they admitted watching TV or BBC iPlayer.

For the conviction statement to be admissible in court, the officials have to give a formal police-style warning about their right to silence and that anything they say could be used against them.

Shockingly, Mr Doyle advises the undercover reporter to compile evidence against residents for conviction statements by chatting to them informally – before then reading them the caution. This suggests people could have no idea they may get dragged to court when answering seemingly friendly questions at their front doors.

Hit the magic 28 sales a week and there’s a bonus

TV Licensing has always maintained that it would prefer people to buy a licence rather than be prosecuted. Capita says its bonus scheme is based only on sales of licence fees and not convictions.

But Mr Doyle tells the undercover reporter that even if people pay when they are visited at home, they can still be prosecuted, given a criminal record – and made to pay more money in court fines.

‘You can only get the sale with a conviction statement so basically you’ve got to take 28 conviction statements before you can start hitting extra money,’ Mr Doyle tells the undercover reporter. ‘The more you get, you earn more money. That’s all it is.’

During the 90-minute interview it is clear the Capita bosses have little time for money problems, family bereavements or – as Mr Doyle puts it – ‘sob stories’.

‘It is not a difficult job, I can’t stress that enough,’ he says.

‘But it is quite difficult as soon as you throw in these things called members of the public. Because for whatever reason they’ve all got a story.

‘You’ll get nearly all the information you need for a conviction statement in the first 40 seconds of conversation with the customer.

‘But it will still take you five or ten minutes to actually get it down onto the form because they’re going to constantly interrupt you.

‘So it’s just a case of learning the listening skills, the empathy skills but getting the hand working at the same time.’

Mr Coker-Ojo regularly interjects, apparently keen to ensure the reporter is tough enough. ‘The customer says: “Listen I can’t afford to pay.” What would you do? And how would that make you feel?’ Mr Coker-Ojo asks.

Mr Doyle brags: ‘One of my officers – my highest performing officer – generally comes in around about 38 to 42 sales a week. They’re obviously after more money. My guy really goes for it.’

As well as the interview, the bosses set a written challenge to show the best times for catching different types of people at home.

In 2011, the BBC gave Capita a £560million contract to administer the licence fee for eight years. Since then, revenue for the BBC from collections has risen by more than £200million to £3.74billion.

Residents have complained repeatedly that Capita staff have hounded them unfairly to force payments and refused to believe them if they said they did not watch TV.

Particularly concerning are figures that show far more women than men are jailed for not paying licence fee evasion fines.

Out of 38 people jailed for the offence in 2015, 20 were women. Five were in their fifties. They served an average of 24 days each. In 2014, 39 people were locked up for the offence and 28 of them were women.

Experts believe this is because women are more likely to answer the door and be willing to answer questions.

For whatever reason they all have a story

Capita says it does not target women or vulnerable people and that any ‘pertinent’ questions are put to residents only after a caution has been given. It says officers work out when people are home because this is more cost-efficient.

A spokesman added: ‘The suggested content of the recruitment interview does not reflect the high standards that we expect, and paints a wholly misleading picture of the culture, skills and attitude of TV Licensing’s operation.’

The BBC says there is no evidence women are unfairly targeted and that where a first time offender pays before court TV Licensing will drop the case.

A spokesman added: ‘TV Licensing goes to great lengths to encourage people to buy a licence, and will only visit when other methods have not worked. It’s our policy to only prosecute evaders as a last resort.’

From an RAF man with dementia to a mother in a woman’s refuge – no one’s safe from the bullies

Families hounded by BBC licence fee collectors last night called them ‘intimidating’.

They accused officials of snooping through windows and forcing their way into their homes.

Some said vulnerable loved ones have been left so frightened by threats of prosecution that they paid the £145.50 TV Licence fee even when it was not necessary.

Over the past month, the Mail has spoken to people across the UK who complain of being treated unfairly by licence fee officials.

They include an RAF veteran with dementia and a young mother taken to court after being hounded by a TV Licensing officer at a women’s refuge. A Methodist church was also targeted – even though there is clearly no TV inside.


Elke-Dee Watson, 27, was hounded by a TV Licensing officer at a women’s refugeElke-Dee Watson, 27, was hounded by a TV Licensing officer at a women’s refuge
A young mum was hounded by a TV Licensing officer at a women’s refuge. Elke-Dee Watson, 27, took sanctuary there after threats by a former partner.

But six days after moving in, an enforcement officer confronted her on her doorstep.

He was let in through security gates by a neighbour who thought he must have known Miss Watson as he was calling her by name.

Miss Watson was accused of evading the licence for the six days she had lived there. There was already a TV inside, left by a previous tenant. Feeling threatened, Miss Watson agreed to sign up to a TV licence payment plan.

But despite agreeing to pay, she received a summons a few days later. At Nuneaton Magistrates’ Court on Tuesday, the case was thrown out.

Miss Watson, who has a six-year-old child, said: ‘The man who visited me was a big chap. That intimidated me as I wasn’t expecting anybody. I’m glad it’s over now.’ A TV Licensing spokesman said: ‘At time of visiting, we were unaware of Miss Watson’s personal circumstances.’


A former RAF officer with dementia who forgot to renew his licence was told by a Capita official that he did not have time to ‘listen to excuses’.

The Kosovo war veteran, 46, who asked not to be named, had paid the bill on a rolling direct debit for the last 12 years. But in October, he forgot to check if the money was taken from his account.

A ‘thuggish’ licensing officer forced his way into his home and refused to take his health problems into account. The case was only dropped on Tuesday when a doctor wrote to Nuneaton magistrates. The man has a terminal brain tumour, spinal tumours and early onset dementia.

He said: ‘I’d only opened the door a couple of inches but before he even introduced himself, he stuck his foot in the door. He offered to pay then, but was told the only option was to go to court.

A TV Licensing spokesman said: ‘We withdrew the case once further information came to light.’


A church in Nottinghamshire has been hounded for payments by TV Licensing. East Leake Methodist Church has received about four letters per year, threatening fines of up to £1,000 for fee evasion.

Each time, treasurer Roger Latham has replied saying there are no TVs in the building.

Mr Latham, 66, wrote in one letter: ‘Only God lives here and he knows everything, so doesn’t need to watch the television.’

Mr Latham, former chief executive of Nottinghamshire County Council, said the letters began arriving in 2009. He said: ‘I sent all the letters back saying: “This is a church”.

They only stopped when Mr Latham told TV Licensing he feared the church’s address was being used by others trying to evade the fee.

He added: ‘People who don’t need the licence are treated like those who are being fraudulent.

A spokesman for TV Licensing said: ‘We updated our database last May to ensure mailings to the Church stopped.’


Fashion worker Leanne Dutton has been fined and has a criminal recordFashion worker Leanne Dutton has been fined and has a criminal record

Fashion worker Leanne Dutton phoned TV Licensing last year to tell officials she had watched one episode of Channel 4 soap Hollyoaks without a licence.

The young mum was worried she might have broken the law, but was allegedly assured she did not have to pay as it was a one-off.

Six days later, Miss Dutton, 25, was visited by an enforcement officer. She has since been fined and has a criminal record.

Miss Dutton, of Hyde, Greater Manchester, who has a six-year-old son Ellis, cancelled her licence and stopped watching terrestrial TV to save money.

But last August, she reconnected the set to watch Hollyoaks.

Days later, a Capita official arrived at her home. Miss Dutton said: ‘He really banged on the door.

‘I initially thought it must be the police because it was so forceful.’

She was found guilty on Thursday of using the set without a licence, was fined £60 and ordered to pay £130 in prosecution costs and a £30 victim surcharge.

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#Daesh: UK government response – GOV.UK

Posted on Updated on

#Daesh: UK government responseDaesh (also known as ISIL, Islamic State, or ISIS) is a terrorist group. It claims to represent Islam but uses the banner of religion to carry out barbaric atrocities, including beheadings, crucifixions and the slaughter of children.
The UK is playing a leading role in the Global Coalition – a unified body of 68 partners committed to degrading and defeating Daesh through military action; tackling Daesh’s finances; preventing the flow of foreign terrorist fighters; supporting stabilisation efforts; and degrading Daesh’s poisonous and false narrative.
Daesh poses to a threat to UK national security as it seeks to expand its terror network, using propaganda to radicalise and recruit citizens from the UK and across the world. The UK has a counter-terrorism strategy to prevent and disrupt of plots against this country; and our comprehensive counter extremism strategy seeks to tackle the extremists who cause harm, create divisions in our communities and undermine the shared values of this country –
The Threat

Following the Arab Spring uprising in 2011, there has been major political and social unrest in the Middle East and North Africa. Demands from citizens for fairer, more democratic societies across the region have resulted in the breakdown of several autocratic governments, but also in turbulent civil wars which continue to rage in Syria and Yemen. Unfortunately, terrorist groups have attempted to capitalise on the political upheaval in the region to establish territory and propagate violent ideologies.
Daesh (also known as ISIL and ISIS) is one such group. The UK is at the forefront of global efforts to degrade and defeat Daesh. The suppression of their poisonous ideology is vital for our own national security.
Defeating Daesh in Iraq and Syria
The UK is a member of the Global Coalition – a unified body of 68 international partners dedicated to degrading and defeating Daesh. The Global Coalition was formed in September 2014 and is unique in its membership, scope and commitment.
All members are committed to countering Daesh’s global ambitions and dismantling its networks through:
providing essential military support to local forces;

stifling Daesh’s financing

preventing the flow of foreign terrorist fighters across borders;

supporting stabilisation efforts in areas liberated from Daesh;

exposing Daesh’s delusional and false religious narrative through counter messaging.

The UK plays a leading role in all of the above.
The UK has committed over 1,400 military personnel to the region to provide essential support to local forces. In the air, the Royal Air Force has conducted over 1,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria – more than any other Coalition country bar America – and provides highly advanced intelligence and surveillance to Iraqi Security Forces. On the ground, the UK has trained over 30,000 Iraqi soldiers in engineering, medical skills and basic infantry. In Syria, UK armed forces are training vetted members of Syrian opposition groups in infantry, medical and explosive hazard awareness skills as part of our counter-Daesh campaign.
As a result, Daesh have lost nearly half the territory it once occupied in Iraq and over 20% in Syria.
The UK recognises that the disruption of Daesh finances is essential to their defeat. The UK has public and private co-operation with the banking industry to ensure Daesh is denied access to the official financial system. We work closely with finance specialists in the region to increase our understanding of the informal Hawala finance network, commonly used by Daesh, and share our knowledge with local Financial Investigation Units to help disrupt Daesh’s economic infrastructure in Iraq, Lebanon and Turkey.
As a member of the Global Coalition, the UK participates in precision airstrikes against Daesh-controlled oil fields and infrastructure, in order to disrupt Daesh’s primary source of income. We also work closely with Coalition partners to prevent Daesh profiting from the illegal trafficking of antiquities, which they have plundered from Syria and Iraq.
Foreign Terrorist Fighters
The UK advises against all travel to Syria and parts of Iraq. Anyone who does travel, for whatever reason, is putting themselves in considerable danger. People seeking to travel to engage in terrorist activity in Syria or Iraq should be in no doubt that the UK will take the strongest possible action to protect national security, including prosecuting those who break the law. There is wide range of powers at the Home Office’s disposal to disrupt travel and manage the risk posed by returnees.
The number of foreign fighters from across the world travelling to join Daesh in Iraq and Syria has decreased by up to 90% since 2014.
Stabilisation is the process of rebuilding essential services and utilities so people are able to return home. The UK has committed £9.25million to the UN Development Programme Stabilisation Fund and deployed experts to this body and to the British Embassy in Baghdad to help with the stabilisation process in Iraq. To date, more than 775,000 Iraqis have returned home to areas liberated from terrorists thanks to this fund. The UK is also providing £7.75 million primarily through the UN Mine Action Service to ensure the careful removal of explosive devices in Iraq ahead of rebuilding efforts.
Strategic Communications
The UK leads international efforts to counter Daesh’s propaganda and damage its brand. In September 2015, the UK launched the Counter-Daesh Communications Cell.
Through the UK’s leadership, the Cell has changed the international narrative around Daesh – from one that highlights their atrocities to one which emphasises their failures. This has been vital in damaging the perception of #Daesh and reducing their ability to recruit. The UK provides daily information packs to Coalition partners, containing facts and figures on Daesh’s increasing failures. We also launched a Global Coalition website that houses up-to-date information on Coalition progress. All of this has helped Governments highlight Daesh’s lies and expose their inadequacies.
For further information on the Global Coalition’s efforts, please visit or follow the Coalition on Twitter – @Coalition; @CoalitionAR; @CoalitionFR
Mitigating the impact on the region
The UK’s efforts against Daesh in Iraq and Syria are part of our wider strategy to promote peace and prosperity in the Middle East and North Africa. The Arab Spring in 2011 highlighted the interconnected nature of the region, which Daesh has subsequently exploited to expand across Iraq, Syria and Libya. Thus, our efforts to defeat Daesh are essential to the stability and security of the whole region.
The UK is working to encourage political stability based on open, inclusive and democratic systems. For more information on our efforts in the region, please visit the stability in the Middle East & North Africa webpage.
Humanitarian support
Daesh’s presence in Iraq has resulted in the displacement of over 3.3million Iraqi people. In response to this, the UK has pledged £169.5million in humanitarian aid to Iraq since 2014. This life-saving aid has provided shelter, clean water, medicine and financial support to thousands of vulnerable Iraqis.
For more information on our humanitarian effort in Iraq, please visit the DfID Iraq page. For more information on the humanitarian support to those affected by the Mosul campaign, please visit the humanitarian emergencies page.
The conflict in Syria has resulted in one of the worst humanitarian crises of all time. 13.5million people in Syria are in desperate need of humanitarian assistance, including 590,000 in besieged areas. In spite of international pressure, the regime and other parties continue to willfully impede humanitarian access.
The UK is fully committed to supporting the Syrian people, wherever they are. To date, we have pledged more than £2.3 billion to support those affected by the conflict – our largest ever response to a single humanitarian crisis. UK funding has delivered over 20 million food rations, 4.4 million medical consultations and relief items for over 5.8 million people across the region.
The UK is at the forefront of the response to the Syria crisis, hosting the ‘Supporting Syria and the Region conference’ in February 2016, where $10 billion was pledged by the international community. The UK continues to work with our partners to deliver on commitments and to maintain the momentum of longer-term fundraising.
For more information on our humanitarian effort in Syria, please visit the DfID Syria page or view this factsheet. If you would like to help support those affected by the war in Syria, please see our pages on Syrian refugees.
Addressing the Political Causes
The Syrian Civil War is a direct result of President Bashar Al-Assad’s brutal and inhumane treatment of the Syrian people. The UK is part of the International Syria Support Group which is working to find a political solution to the conflict. We believe this solution must be based on a transition away from the Assad regime to a government representative of all Syrians, with which we can partner against terrorism. This is the only viable path towards the peace and security that the Syrian people deserve.
Since the start of the conflict, the UK has provided the moderate opposition to Assad’s regime with practical and political support. This includes training and equipping civil defence teams to carry out search and rescue missions; training Syrian journalists and activists to develop an independent Syrian media and; funding local level peace-building projects within Syria and between communities in neighbouring countries where refugees are based. The UK also supports the efforts of the High Negotiations Committee as they work towards a political transition that can bring a lasting end to the conflict.
The UK is working closely with the UN to demand an end to the violence and atrocities committed by the Assad regime, including the bombardment and besiegement of civilian cities and the regime’s restriction of life-saving aid to these areas. The UK also supports independent investigations by the UN Commission of Inquiry into human rights violations and abuses in Syria. We are working in partnership with other donor countries to fund the collection of documentary evidence of human rights abuses for use in possible legal processes in the future..
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Rosoboronexport to organize Russian display at the IDEX 2017 exhibition

Posted on

16.02.2017 Press release

JSC Rosoboronexport (part of the Rosctec State Corporation) will organize a Russian display at the IDEX 2017 world’s largest international defense exhibition to be held in Abu Dhabi (UAE) on February 19-23, 2017.

Minister of Industry and Trade of Russia Denis Manturov will head the official Russian delegation to the exhibition, while Alexey Frolkin, Deputy Director of the Russian Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation, will act as his deputy. The joint Rosctec-Rosoboronexport delegation will be headed by the Rostec’s Industrial Director Sergey Abramov, Rosoboronexport’s delegation – by the company’s Deputy Director General Igor Sevastyanov.

“Russia has traditionally viewed the Middle East as one of the most important regions from the perspective of military-technical cooperation. Rosoboronexport’s offers in this market include both deliveries of cutting-edge military equipment and upgrading of the Soviet and Russian-made equipment. Russian equipment has proved its worth in the Middle East including counterterrorist operations of the past few years”, – Igor Sevastyanov said.

This year marks the 13th IDEX exhibition, with Russia having participated in all of the previous events. Rosoboronexport will present over 240 pieces of military equipment for all military services at IDEX 2017. The entire display of the Russian delegation will showcase about 800 items. Rosoboronexport’s display will feature 18 Russian defense organizations and holding companies. The Russian display is located in an indoor exhibition hall (Stands 09-С20, 09-С15, 01-В15 and 12-А25) and an outdoor exhibition area of the Military Industrial Company (CP-220) and occupies 1379 square meters.

Rosoboronexport’s specialists expect foreign customers to show heightened interest in a wide range of Russian cutting-edge military purpose products including the Su-35 multipurpose air-superiority fighter, Ka-52 attack and reconnaissance helicopter, S-400 Triumf air defense missile system, Pantsir-S1 air defense missile/gun system and Igla-S man-portable air defense system. Project 14310 Mirage patrol boat and Project 12150 Mangust high-speed patrol boat are expected to draw the attention of the representatives of regional navies.

The company also expects delegations of the regional land forces to show traditional interest in the T-90MS tank famous in the Middle East for its superb operational and combat performance, BMP-3M infantry fighting vehicle, BTR-82A armored personnel vehicle and Typhoon-K family of armored vehicles. Kalashnikov-made small arms and special small arms will also enjoy invariably keen interest of regional customers.

On February 20, 2017, Russian specialists will hold a number of presentations in the conference hall of the Aloft hotel situated in the ADNEC national exhibition center. At 10:30 Rosoboronexport and Kronshtadt Group will present software and hardware solutions for the Comprehensive Approach to the Establishment and Equipping of Multiservice Combat Training Centers. At 13:30 the special exporter and Angstrem scientific-production association will hold a presentation on a new generation radiostation-based communications system.

At IDEX 2017, Rosoboronexport’s specialists have a busy agenda, which includes prescheduled meetings with governmental officials and representatives of the armed forces and business community of the United Arabic Emirates, Middle East, Africa, South-Eastern Asia and European Union.

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Manasseh (tribal patriarch) – AND – Tribe of Ephraim – Wikipedi – Biblical References

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Jacob, Joseph‘s father, adopted Joseph’s two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, to share in Jacob’s inheritance equally with Jacob’s own sons. (Genesis 48:5) He is counted as the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Manasseh, one of the twelve Israelite tribes. Jacob also blessed Ephraim over his older brother. (Genesis 48:20) “Manasseh” in Hebrew means “forgetful.”

Manasseh had a son, Asriel, with his wife; and Machir with his Aramean concubine (1 Chronicles 7:14). Numbers 32:41 and Deuteronomy 3:14 refer to a son called Jair, who “took all the region of Argob, as far as the border of the Geshurites and the Maachathites, and [who] called Bashan after his own name, Havoth Jair.

Biblical criticism

Some biblical scholars view this as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite confederation. The text of the Torah argues that the name of Manasseh is etymologically derived from the root נשה nasah, which means to forget, and goes on to argue that it refers to Joseph forgetting his troubles and his father’s household, on account of the actions of God. Other scholars maintain that the name is of Egyptian rather than Hebrew origin.

In the Biblical account, Joseph’s other son is Ephraim, and Joseph himself is one of the two children of Rachel and Jacob, the other being Benjamin. Biblical scholars regard it as obvious, from their geographic overlap and their treatment in older passages, that originally Manasseh and Ephraim were considered one tribe – that of Joseph; according to several biblical scholars, Benjamin was also originally part of this single tribe, but the biblical account of Joseph as his father became lost. A number of biblical scholars suspect that the distinction of the Joseph tribes (including Benjamin) is that they were the only Israelites which went to Egypt and returned, while the main Israelite tribes simply emerged as a subculture from the Canaanites and had remained in Canaan throughout. According to this view, the story of Jacob’s visit to Laban to obtain a wife originated as a metaphor for this migration, with the property and family which were gained from Laban representing the gains of the Joseph tribes by the time they returned from Egypt; according to textual scholars, the Jahwist version of the Laban narrative only mentions the Joseph tribes, and Rachel, and doesn’t mention the other tribal matriarchs whatsoever.

In the Torah, the eventual precedence of the tribe of Ephraim is argued to derive from Joseph tricking Jacob, blind and on his deathbed, into blessing Ephraim before Manessah. The text describing this blessing features a hapax legomenon – the word שכל (sh-k-l) – which classical rabbinical literature has interpreted in esoteric manners; some rabbinical sources connect the term with sekel, meaning mind/wisdom, and view it as indicating that Jacob was entirely aware of who he was actually blessing; other rabbinical sources connect the term with shikkel, viewing it as signifying that Jacob was despoiling Manasseh in favour of Ephraim; yet other rabbinical sources argue that it refers to the power of Jacob to instruct and guide the holy spirit.

The Book of Chronicles states that Manasseh was married to an Aramean concubine, and that they had two sons, named Asriel and Machir; in the Torah’s genealogy of Manasseh’s family, which textual scholars ascribe to the earlier priestly source, Asriel instead appears to be the son of Gilead, the son of Machir. Near the end of the book of Genesis, according to some English translations of the Bible (such as the King James Version), Manasseh’s grandchildren are described as having been brought up upon Joseph’s knees, while other English translations (such as the Revised Version) render the same text as born upon Joseph’s knees; the gloss for this passage given by some English translations (such as the New International Version) is that the grandchildren were adopted by Joseph as his own children, at the moment they were born. The Targum Pseudo-Jonathan argues that Manasseh had been a steward in Joseph’s household, and had acted as an interpreter between Joseph and his other brothers; this targum also mentions that Manasseh had unusually large strength.

Bible scholarship

British Israelite Herbert W. Armstrong of the Worldwide Church of God (1940s to 1980s), in a book called The United States and Great Britain in Prophecy, claimed the United States was a ruminate of the Tribe of Manasseh. He gave as evidence the blessings from Jacob to Ephraim and Manasseh, and a princess of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, who fled to the Isles of the north with two tribesmen of Ephraim and Manasseh.


According to the Bible, the Tribe of Ephraim is descended from a man named Ephraim. This Ephraim is recorded as the son of Joseph, the son of Jacob. The descendants of Joseph formed two of the tribes of Israel, whereas each of the other sons of Jacob was the founder of only one tribe.

The Bible records that the Tribe of Ephraim entered the land of Canaan during its conquest by Joshua, a descendant of Ephraim himself. However, “almost all” scholars have abandoned the idea that Joshua carried out a conquest of Canaan similar to that described in the Book of Joshua.

From Joshua to the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel, the Tribe of Ephraim was a part of a loose confederation of Israelite tribes. No central government existed, and in times of crisis the people were led by ad hoc leaders known as Judges (see the Book of Judges).

With the growth of the threat from Philistine incursions, the Israelite tribes decided to form a strong centralised monarchy to meet the challenge. The Tribe of Ephraim joined the new kingdom with Saul as the first king. The widely accepted date for Saul’s reign is approximately 1025-1005. Some scholars dispute this date range and place Saul later, perhaps as late as “the second half of the tenth century B.C.E.”

After the death of Saul, the Bible records all the tribes other than Judah remained loyal to the House of Saul. After the death of Ish-bosheth, Saul’s son and successor to the throne of Israel, the Tribe of Ephraim joined the other northern Israelite tribes in making David, who was then the king of Judah, the king of a re-united Kingdom of Israel. According to archaeologist Israel Finkelstein, there is doubt about whether the biblical ordering for the reigns of the early monarchs is reliable, and that the sequence preserved in the Bible, in which David follows Saul as king of Israel, may not be historically accurate.

However, on the accession of Rehoboam, David’s grandson, in c. 930 BCE the northern tribes split from the House of David to form the northern Kingdom of Israel. The first king of the northern kingdom was an Ephraimite, Jeroboam, who likely ruled from 931-909 BCE.

The accents of the tribes were distinctive enough even at the time of the confederacy so that when the Israelites of Gilead, under the leadership of Jephthah, fought the Tribe of Ephraim, their pronunciation of shibboleth as sibboleth was considered sufficient evidence to single out individuals from Ephraim, so that they could be subjected to immediate death by the Israelites of Gilead.

Ephraim was a member of the Northern Kingdom until the kingdom was conquered by Assyria in c. 723 BCE and the population deported. From that time, the Tribe of Ephraim has been counted as one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.

Ephraim is often seen as the tribe that embodies the entire Northern Kingdom and the royal house resided in the tribe’s territory (just as Judah is the tribe that embodies the Kingdom of Judah and provided its royal family).

Tribal territory:

In the biblical account, following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. Kenneth Kitchen, a well-known conservative biblical scholar, dates this event to slightly after 1200 BCE. However, the consensus view of modern scholars is that the conquest of Joshua as described in the Book of Joshua never occurred.

As recorded in the Book of Joshua, the territory allocated to the Tribe of Ephraim was at the center of Canaan, west of the Jordan, south of the territory of Manasseh, and north of the Tribe of Benjamin. The region later named Samaria (as distinguished from Judea or Galilee) consisted mostly of Ephraim’s territory. The area was mountainous, giving it protection, and also highly fertile, giving prosperity,

<img alt=”” src=”//” width=”250″ height=”381″ class=”thumbimage” data-file-width=”2168″ data-file-height=”3300″>Map of the twelve tribes of Israel

The territory of Ephraim contained the early centers of Israelite religion – Shechem and Shiloh. These factors contributed to making Ephraim the most dominant of the tribes in the Kingdom of Israel, and led to Ephraim becoming a synonym for the entire kingdom.

Joshua 16:1-4 outlines the borders of the lands allocated to the “children of Joseph”, i.e. Ephraim and Manasseh combined, and Joshua 16:5-8 defines the borders of the land allocated to the tribe of Ephraim in more detail.

Bethel was allocated by Joshua to the Tribe of Benjamin. However, even by the time of the prophetess Deborah, Bethel is described as being in the land of the Tribe of Ephraim. (Judges 4:5) Some twenty years after the breakup of the United Monarchy, Abijah, the second king of Kingdom of Judah, defeated Jeroboam of Israel and took back the towns of Bethel, Jeshanah and Ephron, with their surrounding villages. Ephron is believed to be the Ophrah that was also allocated to the Tribe of Benjamin by Joshua.

The riverine gulch, naḥal Ḳanah (Joshua 17:9), divided Ephraim’s territory to the south, and Manasseh’s territory to the north. The modern Israeli town of Karnei Shomron is built near this gulch, which runs in an easterly-westerly direction.

The border of Ephraim extended from the Jordan River in the east to the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and incorporated within it the cities of Bethel (now Beitin), ʻAtarot, Beth-Ḥoron the Nether (now Bayt ʻUr), extending as far as Gezer (now Abu Shûsheh, formerly known as Tell el Jezer) and the Mediterranean Sea. Gezer was said to have been inhabited by Canaanites long after Joshua had either killed or expelled the other Canaanites. According to French archaeologist, Charles Clermont-Ganneau, who identified the site in 1871 and later carried out excavations there, Gezer marked the extreme western point of the territory of Ephraim, and was “situated at the actual intersection of the boundaries of Ephraim, Dan and Judah.” This view, however, does not seem to be supported by the Scriptures themselves which place the extent of Ephraim’s border at the sea.

Spanish Jewish traveller, Benjamin of Tudela, wrote that the southern-most bounds of the territory of Ephraim extended in a south-westerly direction as far as the town of Ibelin or Jabney.


According to the Torah, the tribe consisted of descendants of Ephraim a son of Joseph, from whom it took its name; however some critical Biblical scholars view this also as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite confederation. In the Biblical account, Joseph is one of the two children of Rachel and Jacob, a brother to Benjamin, and father to both Ephraim, and his first son, Manasseh; Ephraim received the blessing of the firstborn, although Manasseh was the eldest, because Jacob foresaw that Ephraim’s descendants would be greater than his brother’s.

Though the biblical descriptions of the geographic boundary of the House of Joseph are fairly consistent, the descriptions of the boundaries between Manasseh and Ephraim are not, and each is portrayed as having exclaves within the territory of the other. Furthermore, in the Blessing of Jacob, and elsewhere ascribed by textual scholars to a similar or earlier time period, Ephraim and Manasseh are treated as a single tribe, with Joseph appearing in their place. From this it is regarded as obvious that originally Ephraim and Manasseh were considered one tribe — that of Joseph. According to several biblical scholars, Benjamin was also originally part of the House of Joseph, but the biblical account of this became lost; Benjamin being differentiated by being that part of Ephraim (House of Joseph) which joined the Kingdom of Judah rather than that of Israel.

A number of biblical scholars suspect that the Joseph tribes (including Benjamin) represent a second migration of Israelites to Israel, later than the main tribes, specifically that it was only the Joseph tribes which went to Egypt and returned, while the main Israelite tribes simply emerged as a subculture from the Canaanites and had remained in Canaan throughout; in the narrative in the Book of Joshua, which concerns the arrival in (and conquest of) Canaan by the Israelites from Egypt, the leader is Joshua, who was a member of the Ephraim tribe. According to this view, the story of Jacob’s visit to Laban to obtain a wife began as a metaphor for the second migration, with Jacob’s new family, possessions, and livestock, obtained from Laban, being representations of the new wave of migrants;


In the account of the deuteronomic history, Ephraim is portrayed as domineering, haughty, discontented, and jealous, but in classical rabbinical literature, the biblical founder of the tribe is described as being modest and not selfish. These rabbinical sources allege that it was on account of modesty and selflessness, and a prophetic vision of Joshua, that Jacob gave Ephraim precedence over Manasseh, the elder of the two; in these sources, Jacob is regarded as sufficiently just that God upholds the blessing in his honour, and makes Ephraim the leading tribe. Nevertheless, other classical rabbinical texts mock the tribe for the character it has in the deuteronomic history, claiming that Ephraim, being headstrong, left Egypt 30 years prior to the Exodus, and on arrival in Canaan was subjected to a disastrous battle with the Philistines; in the Midrashic Jasher this is portrayed as a rebellion of Ephraim against God, resulting in the slaying of all but 10, and the bleached bones of the slaughtered being strewn across the roads, so much so that the circuitous route of the Exodus was simply an attempt by God to prevent the Israelites from having to suffer the sight of the remains.

Though from the point of view of an increasing majority of archaeologists, there were always two distinct cultures in Canaan, a strong and prosperous northern kingdom and a weaker and poorer southern one, in the Biblical account the Israelite tribes were initially united in a single kingdom, and only later fractured into the northern and southern kingdoms; this fracture is blamed by the Bible on the jealousy of Ephraim over the growing power of Judah. In the Book of Chronicles, Ephraim’s act of splintering from Judah is denounced as forsaking God, and Ephraim is portrayed as becoming highly irreligious, particularly in their resistance to the reforms enacted by Hezekiah and Josiah.

It was not until the close of the first period of Jewish history that God ‘refused the tabernacle of Joseph (Hebrew Bible), and chose not the tribe of Ephraim, but chose the tribe of Judah, the Mount Zion which he loved’. (Ps 78:67,68) When the Ark was removed from Shiloh to Zion the power of Ephraim was sequestered.


As part of the Kingdom of Israel, the territory of Ephraim was conquered by the Assyrians, and the tribe exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost. However, several modern day groups claim descent, with varying levels of academic and rabbinical support. The Samaritans claim that some of their adherents are descended from this tribe, and many Persian Jews claim to be descendants of Ephraim. Further afield, in India the Telugu Jews claim descent from Ephraim, and call themselves Bene Ephraim, relating similar traditions to those of the Mizo Jews, whom the modern state of Israel regards as descendants of Manasseh.

Several western Christian groups, in particular those of the Church of God in Christ, claim that the whole UK is the direct descendant of Ephraim, and that the whole United States is the direct descendant of Manasseh, based on the interpretation that Jacob had said these two tribes would become the most supreme nations in the world.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) believes a significant portion of its members to be descended from or adopted into the tribe of Ephraim, arguing that they are charged with restoring the lost tribes in the latter days as prophesied by Isaiah, and that the tribes of both Ephraim and Judah will play important leadership roles for covenant Israel in the last days; some believe that this would be the fulfilment of part of the Blessing of Jacob, where it states that Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall (Genesis 49:22, interpreting the “wall” as the ocean).


  1. For the etymology, see Robert D. Miller (2000). David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Allen C. Beck, eds. Ephraim,” Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. W.B. Eerdmans. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4.
  2. Alan David Crown; Reinhard Plummer; Abraham Tal, eds. (1993). A Companion to Samaritan Studies. Mohr Siebeck. p. 85. ISBN 978-3-16-145666-4.
  3. Genesis 41:50-52, Genesis 30.
  4. Numbers 13:8 and 1 Chronicles 7:20-27
  5. Lester L. Grabbe (1 January 2000). “Writing Israel’s History at the End of the Twentieth Century”. International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament: Congress Volume Oslo 1998. Supplements to Vetus testamentum. BRILL. p. 210. ISBN 90-04-11598-6. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  6. On both datings, see Finkelstein, Israel (2013). The Forgotten Kingdom: the archaeology and history of Northern Israel (PDF). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-58983-911-3.
  7. Finkelstein, Israel (2013). The Forgotten Kingdom: the archaeology and history of Northern Israel (PDF). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-58983-911-3.
  8. For the biblical account, see 1 Kings 11:26
  9. On the date of Jeroboam I, seeFinkelstein, Israel (2013). The Forgotten Kingdom: the archaeology and history of Northern Israel (PDF). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-58983-911-3.
  10. Kitchen, Kenneth A. (2003), “On the Reliability of the Old Testament” (Grand Rapids, Michigan. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company)(ISBN 0-8028-4960-1)
  11. “Besides the rejection of the Albrightian ‘conquest’ model, the general consensus among OT scholars is that the Book of Joshua has no value in the historical reconstruction. They see the book as an ideological retrojection from a later period — either as early as the reign of Josiah or as late as the Hasmonean period.” K. Lawson Younger, Jr. (1 October 2004). “Early Israel in Recent Biblical Scholarship”. In David W. Baker; Bill T. Arnold. The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary Approaches. Baker Academic. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-8010-2871-7.
  12. ”It behooves us to ask, in spite of the fact that the overwhelming consensus of modern scholarship is that Joshua is a pious fiction composed by the deuteronomistic school, how does and how has the Jewish community dealt with these foundational narratives, saturated as they are with acts of violence against others?” Carl S. Ehrlich (1999). “Joshua, Judaism and Genocide”. Jewish Studies at the Turn of the Twentieth Century, Volume 1: Biblical, Rabbinical, and Medieval Studies. BRILL. p. 117. ISBN 90-04-11554-4.
  13. ”Recent decades, for example, have seen a remarkable reevaluation of evidence concerning the conquest of the land of Canaan by Joshua. As more sites have been excavated, there has been a growing consensus that the main story of Joshua, that of a speedy and complete conquest (e.g. Josh. 11.23: ‘Thus Joshua conquered the whole country, just as the LORD had promised Moses’) is contradicted by the archaeological record, though there are indications of some destruction and conquest at the appropriate time.Adele Berlin; Marc Zvi Brettler (17 October 2014). The Jewish Study Bible: Second Edition. Oxford University Press. p. 951. ISBN 978-0-19-939387-9.
  14. Hosea 9:13
  15. Genesis 49:22
  16. Deuteronomy 33:13-16
  17. Isaiah 28:1
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jewish Encyclopedia
  19. Joshua 18:11-28
  20. 2 Chronicles 13:17-19
  21. Joshua 18:20-28, esp 23
  22. Carta’s Official Guide to Israel and Complete Gazetteer to all Sites in the Holy Land (3rd edition 1993), Jerusalem
  23. Carta’s Official Guide to Israel, Jerusalem 1983, p. 99. Beitin, identified as Bethel, is now an Arab village 4 km. NE of Ramallah. Burj Beitin, the ruins of its ancient settlement, lay within the boundaries of Beitin village.
  24. Joshua 16:1 et seq.
  25. Joshua 16:10
  26. Charles Clermont-Ganneau, Archaeological Researches in Palestine during the Years 1873-1874, vol. II, London 1896, p. 275 (Translated from the original French by John MacFarlane)
  27. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, (ed. Marcus Nathan Adler), Oxford University Press, London 1907, p. 27
  28. Genesis 30
  29. ^ a b c d e Peake’s commentary on the Bible
  30. Genesis 48:13-20
  31. e.g. Joshua 17:14-18
  32. Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed
  33. 2 Chronicles 15:8-11
  34. 2 Chronicles 30:1, 30:10, 30:18, 34:6, 34:9
  35. ‘Lost tribe of Israel’ found in southern India, Canadian Jewish News, 7 October 2010
  36. McConkie, Bruce R., The Millennial Messiah, 1982, Chapter 16.


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